The state language of Uttarakhand is Hindi. It is the most spoken language of the state and belongs to the Indo-Aryan family of language. Kumaoni and Garhwali are the local languages spoken in the state of Uttarakhand and are dialects of Pahari language. English is spoken as well. Uttarakhand is the first state in India to have Sanskrit as their second official Uttarakhand language.
Language spoken in Uttarakhand is of vast majority. Garhwali is a dialect of central Pahari and is spoken in Garhwali region. Almost all people who can understand and speak in Garhwali can also understand Hindi. Garhwali is spoken by a vast majority of people in Uttarakhand. It belongs to the Northern zone of Indo-Aryan languages. Kumaoni is a Central Pahari language and spoken by a large number of people in Uttarakhand.
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Hindi is the official language of Uttarakhand. Main language of Uttarakhand is Hindi as most of the people living in Uttarakhand speak Hindi. Sanskrit was made the second official language of the state under the Article 345 of the Constitution. The state of Uttarakhand is a multi linguistic state. Two major dialects of Pahari language are spoken here: Kumaoni and Garhwali. Apart from these, regional languages like Jaunsari and Bhutia are spoken in minority as well.
Hindi is the local language of Uttarakhand, besides Hindi many other local languages are spoken as well. The most common local languages are Kumaoni and Garhwali. These languages are dialects of Pahari language. Jaunsari and Bhutia languages are also spoken by tribal communities in the west and north parts of the state. English is also a very common language in the state, and is spoken by most of the urban population.
Hindi is the main language of Uttarakhand. Many other dialects are spoken as well in the state. Garhwali and Kumaoni are both dialects of Pahari language. Both these languages belong to the Indo-Aryan family of language. Kumaoni language is one of the 325 recognized Indian languages and is spoken by a majority in the state. It forms the main sub-group of the Pahari language. Kumaoni has many dialects that are spoken in different places in Uttarakhand. Central Kumaoni, Northeastern Kumaoni, Southeastern Kumaoni and Western Kumaoni are the dialects of Kumaoni. It is spoken in the following districts:
Garhwali is a Central Pahari language and belongs to the Indo-Aryan family of language. Like Kumaoni, it is also one of the 325 recognized Indian languages. Garhwali is spoken in the following districts of Uttarakhand:
People who speak in Kumaoni and Garhwali can understand Hindi. However, due to a number of reasons Kumaoni and Garhwali are losing their appeal to the general masses and shrinking very rapidly.
|Second State Language||Sanskrit|
|Regional/Local Language||Hindi, Kumaoni and Garhwali|
Uttarakhand language Hindi is considered to have directly descended from Sanskrit. Kumaoni and Garhwali are both Pahari languages. They both belong to the Indo-Aryan family of language. Khas Prakrit is said to be the main source of Garhwali. The earliest form of Garhwali language can be traced back to the 10th century and was found in royal seals and inscription. There are various dialects of Garhwali. Few of them are Badhani, Parvati, Rathi, Dessaulya, Lohabbya, Nagpuriya, Chaundkoti and Gangadi etc.
Most of the languages in Uttarakhand, like Hindi, Garhwali, Kumaoni etc., use the Devanagri script. This script is a form of alphabets called abugida. They are both written from left to right. The grammar of Garhwali is derived from Sanskrit. Because it is a part of Indo-Aryan languages and Pahari languages, Garhwali shares its grammar with other Indo-Aryan languages like Rajasthani, Kashmiri and Pahari languages like Nepali and Kumaoni.
Garhwali literature is very rich in all genres like poetry, novels, plays and short stories. Earlier, the Garhwali literature was presented in the form of folklore. The earliest manuscript found in Garhwali is Ranch Judya Judige Ghimsaan Ji. Pt. Jayadev Bahuguna wrote it in the 16th century. Garhwali literature has been flourishing ever since despite negligence from the side of the government. To this date, newspapers like Rant Raibaar and Uttarakhand Khabarsar are published in Garhwali language. Many magazines like Baduli, Dhaad and Hilaans have contributed to the development of Garhwali literature.
Uttarakhand language name is Hindi and this is a very rich state culturally. A multi lingual state, in Uttarakhand many languages are spoken. It is the first state to have Sanskrit as its second official language after Hindi. Besides Hindi, Many other regional languages are spoken too. These include Kumaoni, Garhwali.