The state language of Tripura is Bengali. About 70% of the state’s population comprise of Bengali’s. Bengali is also referred to as ‘Bangla’ and is an Indo-Aryan language. The language has evolved from Sanskrit and Magadhi Prakrit languages and happens to be the second most speak Tripura language in India. Besides Tripura, West Bengal and neighbouring country Bangladesh also share this official language.
Bengali has a rich history of literary works that are so popular that they have been translated in other languages as well.
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Bengali is the main language spoken in Tripura. Besides Bengali, English and Kokborok are also said to be the official languages and are widely used in the state. All the official and administrative offices use English. The medium of instruction in all the schools of Tripura is Bengali and English. However, other local languages are also taught and at times used for medium of instruction too.
The official language of Tripura is Bengali, Main language of Tripura is Bengali as 70% people living in Tripura speak Bengali. but there is a diversity of tribes that reside there who use their own native languages. There are 19 tribes which make up the disadvantaged groups or the schedules tribes of the state. Kokborok is the biggest tribe and their native language is Tripuri. The other tribes that form a large part of the population are Reang, Jamatia, Chakma, Halam, Mog, Munda, Kuki and Garo. Kokborok happens to be a popular language among the tribes of Tripura. There are many other languages that are spoken here which are Odia, Manipuri, Hindi, Garo, Chakma, Mog, Bishnupuria and Halam. These local language of Tripura are spoken by the Sino-Tibetan and Indo-European families that reside in the state. There also exists a language that is known as Saimar which was almost extinct and was known to be spoken by just four people in a particular village as per records of 2012.
Bengali is the main language of Tripura and there are different dialects that are spoken in Tripura. There are different linguists that have classified Bengali dialect in many different categories. However it should be noted that Bengali dialect is different while it is spoken and there is a different dialect used while writing it.
We can divide the history of Bengali language into three different times – Old Bengali, Middle Bengali and Modern Bengali. The charva songs composed mainly by the Buddhists which is a collection of 48 poems is what remain of the Old Bengali. The Middle Bengali comprises much of a longer period and it is during this period that India was ruled by Persians and Arabian kings who had much impact on this language. The Modern Bengali can be said to have developed from the 19th century. The written and the vocal form of Bengali varies a lot and ‘Choltibhasha’ was identified to be used for Bengali while speaking it and ‘Sadhubhasha’ is the form of Bengali that is used for writing. Bengali language was loved by the kings of Tripura and was also used as the official language at the court.
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The Bengali script is an abugida and can be said to be a variant of Eastern Nagari script. Bengali is written from left to right and letter cases is absent in the writing style.
Bengali, the official language of Tripura has a rich history of literature. The literary works in Bengali saw its rise in the 19th century when Bankim Chandra published his ‘Durgeshnandini’ in 1865. Bankim Chandra Chatterjee also happens to be the one who has given to the nation our national song ‘Vandemateram’ which is a part of his novel Anandamath. It was this time when there were many newletters and magazines that were printed with the advent of printing press. There were many Bengali poets who wrote fine pieces of literature that are truly amazing to read.
The regional language of Tripura saw some great works of literature through the hands of Saramangal, Biharilal Chakravarti and Sadhar Asan. They were famous for their poetic style and was loved by Rabindranath Tagore. Tagore was a literary genius – a literary critic, a poet, a short-story writer, essayist, novelist and a dramatist. There were few who could come up to his wondrous works, some of them were Prabhatkumar Mukherjee, Sarat Chandra Chatterjee and Abanindranath Tagore. A more modern Bengali form of writing could be seen in the writers who penned for Kallol, a magazine – Mohitlal Mazumdar and Kazi Nazrul Islam to mention a few. Novelist Bibhutibhushan Bandopadhyaya ,Rajshekhar Basu , poet Jibananda Das, Annadashankar and Pramathanath Bisi are some of the other literary experts of modern Bengali.
Tripura language name is Bengali and is not only used in Tripura but also in most parts of Eastern India. Bengali is a language that has existed for ages and the people clearly love and respect their native language. The rich and long tradition of the language binds together the people of Tripura.