The state language of Rajasthan is Hindi. However, people of Rajasthan like to communicate in various local language of Rajasthan. These Rajasthan languages are mainly sub languages or dialects. There are mainly four dialects spoken in Rajasthan including Marwari, Jaipuri, Malvi and Mewati. These are only main languages. There are plenty of others too, clearly indicating that this state is culturally rich and especially in terms of variations present in languages. It is noticeable that mythical language named Rajasthani is not an individual language. Peoples not from Rajasthan always refer any rajasthani dialect as rajasthani language.
Language spoken in Rajasthan also includes Shekhawati, Bagri, Harauti, Wagri and Kishangari languages. Despite of Hindi being the state language, people here prefer to communicate in their own mother language or dialect according to their region. Other than these dialects and local languages, English is also widely spoken in the state of Rajasthan. In famous tourist locations, you will find tourist guides communicating in international languages such as French, German, Japanese and Chinese too. It indicated the development of tourism in the region.
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Hind has been given the status of official language of Rajasthan. Most of the governmental documentation is done in Hindi or otherwise in English. In most of the schools, colleges and other educational institutions, Hindi and English are primary languages as government is supporting the spread of English in education. Talking about the commercial world, English and Hindi are completely dominant. You will see very few or no people communicate through local dialects. Documentation in these fields is of course in Hindi and English too.
Main language of Rajasthan is Marwari as 65% people living in Rajasthan speak Marwari. Hindi is the official language of Rajasthan. However, people of Rajasthan feel themselves incomplete without their local languages of Rajasthan and dialects.
Marwari is one of the famous dialects spoken in Rajasthan. It is spoken in Marwar region that covers major cities such as Jodhpur, Pali, Udaipur and Ajmer. Jaipuri dialect, mostly referred as Dhundhari is the second most spoken language in the state. It is spoken by a large number of people in south-east Rajasthan. There are many lesser known dialects also. Those are more than 20 and still counting as the discoveries are made. These lesser known languages are spoken in tribal areas of Rajasthan. However, increasing city culture has caused noticeable damage to these traditional languages.
|Second State Language||English|
|Regional/Local Language||Marwari, Jaipuri, Malvi and Mewati|
Despite the Hindi being the main language of Rajasthan, there are merely any Hindi dialects spoken. Rajasthan has its own regional and tribal dialects spoken widely throughout the state, here are some main of them:
Marwari: It is been given the name according to the region in which it is widely used. Marwar region covers some major cities of the state including Jodhpur, Pali, Udaipur and Ajmer. People here prefer to communicate in Marwari. On the other hand, they won’t hesitate communicating in Hindi as well.
Jaipuri: It is sometimes referred as dhundhari language. This language can mostly be heard in eastern and southeastern region of the state that covers Jaipur, Ajmer, Kota, Tonk and Jhalawar.
Malvi: It is widely spoken in areas covering Chittorgarh, Udaipur, Bilwara, etc. People here also communicate in Mewati that is a sister language of Malvi.
Rajasthan languages possess rich cultural heritage and history long than 1500 years. Brahsfut sidhant is the oldest rajasthani literature describing various astronomic concepts of Brahmgupta who was from Jalore, Rajasthan. Kuvalaya Mala in Prakrit and Aprabransh were written by Udhyotan Suri in 779 AD.
It is determined that ancestors of Gujarati and Rajasthani spoke ancient Gujjar bhakha that was later developed into modern rajasthani dialects. It is also predicted that modern rajasthani languages were spilt away from Gujarati languages in medieval period, giving them their modern pure form. However, Gujarati language and Rajasthani still sound much similar by many aspects.
There is nothing much to say about writing system of various dialects spoken in Rajasthan. To be honest, none of them have any formal writing method and almost each of them follows writing system of Hindi. It is just like hybriding Spoken languages with Hindi writing methodology. Hence, devanagri script is used by them. Moreover, written communications merely use dialects. In such communications, Hindi is preferred over these dialects.
Origin of Official language of Rajasthan can be found back into the 7th century. Most of the modern regional language of Rajasthan was developed in near past, thus, they were not significantly present in the literature. However, their ancient successfully left its significant presence in Rajasthani Literature. Oldest writing of rajasthani literature dates back into 779 AD. It was written by Udhyotan suri. Brahmagupta Bhimal’s texts are also important while mentioning rajasthani literature.
Primary Rajasthan language name is Hindi. However, the amazing and amusing thing is that there are no dialects of Hindi spoken in any parts of the state. Dialects spoken here are based on various regions and its tradition. Different dialect can be found on different location according to their cultural heritage and tribal traditions.