The state language of Odisha is oriya. Oriya is considered a direct descendant born from eastern Magadhi language. Oriya comes from Aryan language family. This language is very much similar to Assamese, Maithili and Bengali. Many variations and dialects of Oriya have been developed due to surrounding regions full of Aryan and Dravidian language family. There are many Local language of Odisha other than Oriya such as Baleswari, Bhatri, Laria, Sambalpuri, Ganjami, Chhatisgarhi, medinipuri, etc. Unique versions of Oriya are spoken by people of northern and southern hilly regions. Many Sanskrit inscriptions are found matching with many Oriya words and individual characters. It is estimated that this Odisa language existed during the era of Kalinga Empire.
Language spoken in Odisha has a lot of variations. However, Oriya is completely dominant among them. This language of Sanskrit origin is spoken by almost 84 percent population of the state of Odisha. Rest is covered by Hindi, Urdu, Bengali and Telugu. These languages are widely spoken or at least understood. Limited educated population speaks English too. There is some minor population speaking Tamil and Malayalam.
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Oriya was declared as official language of Odisha, in the year of 1954.
Orissa official language act was passed in 1954, which is an Odisha Legislative Assembly act that declared Oriya to be used as official language of the states for all or any official purposes in the Indian state of Orissa. Despite of passing this act, implication cannot be done on a massive scale as expected. People of Orissa called to ensure that Odia language is in all officials corresponds.
Oriya is the official and local language of Odisha. Main language of Odisha is Oriya as 87% people living in Odisha speak Oriya. However, some other Munda and Dravidian languages are also spoken in this Indian state. Languages spoken here are very similar to Assamese and Bengali Tribal languages. Various tribes speak their own version of main languages that is made up by mixing a lot of local words from neighboring state and regions. Tribal of Koraput speak a dialect of Oriya that is much similar to Telegu since the place is close to Andhra Pradesh.
Bigger towns and cities are limited here in the state. However, in most of them, our national language Hindi is spoken and understood very well alongside with little English speaking population.
|Second State Language||—|
|Regional/Local Language||Baleswari, Bhatri, Laria, Sambalpuri, Ganjami, Chhatisgarhi, medinipuri|
Main language of Odisha is Oriya. Thus following dialects and variations of the language are spoken in various area of the state. These languages sound familiar with Oriya more than they do with other mixed up languages. They are as followings:
Kosli: It is also known as sambalpuri. It is a western variation of Oriya language with significant examples of literature.
Reli: It is an east Indian language and possibly a dialect of Oriya that is mostly used in the tribal areas of Orissa state. It is considered as indo—European language.
Kupia: Kupia is indo Aryan language that is closely related to Oriya. It is mostly spoken by Valmiki people residing in Orissa, Telangana and Andhra. Valmiki peoples are tribal group residing in southeastern India.
Bodo Praja: It is also known as Jharia language. It is mainly spoken in odisha by adivasi peoples.
Most of the Odisha languages are indo-Aryan languages. In India, Oriya is spoken by 40 million populations mainly residing in Odisha. It is very similar to the Ardha Magadhi and is considered to be derived from Magadhi Prakrit. These languages had been spoken in India for more than 1500 years now. These languages can be found used as primary languages in early period of Jain literature. In this long period, Oriya was affected by Arabic and Persian languages more than it was by neighboring northeastern languages.
Oriya is said to have its own writing script that is known as Odia script. 14 different characters are used to refer various vowels. There are 13 different consonants in this writing system with 5 dependant vowels. Various characters are formed using these three sets of characters and letters.
Regional languages of Odisha has contributed a lot in the literature related to Oriya language. First Oriya literature was written somewhere between 7th and 9th century under the title of Charyapadas. Shishu veda, saptanga, amara kosha, rudrasudhanidhi, kesaba koli and kalasha chutisha are some important works in Oriya literature before the arrival of Sarala Das who was great follower of goddess Durga. In 14th century, Sarala Mahabharata, Chandi Purana and Vilanka Ramayana were written by him.
Primary Odisha language name is Oriya. Origin of this language is found back into the era of Milind Empire. This language comes from the family of indo Aryan languages. It is observed that heavy influence of Arabic and Persian languages was made of Oriya language. However, now it is the most spoken and official language of the state of Orissa.