The state language of Maharashtra is Marathi. Ranking 19th in the list of most spoken languages throughout the world, Marathi is spoken by more than 73 million people. Maharashtra language Marathi is a part of Indo-Aryan subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages. It also happens to be one of the oldest literatures of India and dates back to 1000 AD. Marathi has evolved from different stages of Indo-Aryan languages which are Apabhramsha, Prakrit and Sanskrit.
There are so many grammatical sources that have found a link between the Marathi language and Maharashtri Prakrit language which happens to be a prominent language which was in use till the late 9th century.
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The main language spoken in Maharashtra is Marathi but Hindi and English are also spoken by the people of Maharashtra. There are some areas in Maharashtra that speak Konkani and Dangii.
The use of the alphabet ‘L’ is frequently used in nouns and verbs of Marathi language. Christian missionary William Carey helped in standardising Marathi grammar in the Modern Period. The year 1817 saw its first Marathi translated English book and it was only in 1832 that the first Marathi newspaper was started.
Main language of Maharashtra is Marathi as 63.9 % people living in Maharashtra speak Marathi. Besides the official language of Maharashtra the other local languages of maharashtra that are spoken here are Varhadi, Jhadi Boli, Bhavsar, Thanjavur Marathi and Namdev shimpi Marathi. Marathi has evolved according to the place and their locals. Every language has variation and can be differentiated according to their grammar and pronunciation.
|Second State Language||—|
|Regional/Local Language||Varhadi, Jhadi Boli, Bhavsar, Thanjavur Marathi and Namdev shimpi Marathi|
The main language of Maharashtra, has been extricated into 42 dialects. Lexical and phonological differences are what make them different from Marathi.
Varhadi: The Eastern Vidarbha region of Maharashtra speaks Vaidarbhi or Varhadi. The main difference detween Marathi and Vaidarbhi is that Varhadi stresses on the letter ‘Y’ unlike Marathi that stresses on ‘L’. Every region has a different dialect and it is this phonetic shift that makes it sound different in every region.
Jhadi Boli: The far forest regions of Maharashtra or the Jhadipranta speak this dialect. Vidarbha that consists of Gadchiroli, Gondia, Chandrapur, parts of Nagpur, Bhandara and Wardha districts of Maharashtra all come in this region and speak Jhadi Boli. There are many important literary people that are working together to save this important dialect of Marathi.
Marathi language rose in the rule of Seuna dynasty of Devnagri. The rulers of this dynasty had adopted Marathi as their court language and the scholars of Marathi had high importance in the court. There were many poets and authors like Dnyaneshwar, Namdev, Saint Tukaram, Moropant, Saint-poet Eknath and Samarth Ramdas who wrote famous books and devotional songs in Marathi.
With the rise of Chhatrapati Shivaji’s Marathi gained more fame and was even used in administrative documents. With every region the Marathas conquered they spread Marathi. Marathi continued to have the same fame in the rule of British as well. There were many literary enthusiasts of the 20th century who with the help of some socio-political movements further helped Marathi to gain more recognition as the language saw its way in the movies, drama and music industries.
‘Modi’ is the script that is used to write Marathi. Till the 20th century ‘Modi’ was the only script used to write Marathi but Devanagari and Balbodh writing systems are also promoted to write Marathi. Initially ‘Modi’ was only used for Marathi but languages like Rajasthani, Gujrati, Tamil, Urdu, Hindi and Kannada have also been written in this script.
Marathi the current official language of Maharashtra, has produced several literary works in the past. It was the Marathas that growth of Marathi language. Samarth Ramdas and Sant Tukaram were renowned poets of the time. Dasdodh and Manache Shlok were composed by Samarth Ramdas. There were many other famous works of several Marathi literary genius during the 18th century such as Ramvijay by Shridhar Pandit, Marathi translated version of Mahabharata by Moropant, Naladamayanti Swayamvara by Raghunath and Yatharthadeepika by Vaman Pandit. There were several biographies written in Marathi on various Saints by a well-known author known as Mahipati.
The regional language of Maharashtra, gained awareness with the modern poetries of B.S.Mardhekar and once again set milestones in the nineties with the poet Shridhar Tilve. Marathi as a language has gained its popularity and now there are authors like Subodh Javadekar, Dr.Jayant Narlikar, Laxman Londe and Dr.Bal Phondke who create rich works in science-fiction in Marathi.
Maharashtra language name is Marathi and it has its roots buried deep in Indian history. With time and the development of language in our daily lives Marathi has also flourished as a language. The language is widely spoken by the people of Maharashtra and we look up to some social groups who are striving to save some of the dying dialects of Marathi.