Kannada is the State language of Karnataka. It is spoken as a native language by majority of the people in the state. For which, the figure is as high as 70 percent of total population. There are other Karnataka languages spoken in the region too. Some minorities coming from outer states are responsible for these local languages. Local language of Karnataka includes Telugu, Urdu, Marathi, Tamil, Malayalam, Tulu and Hindi.
Language spoken in Karnataka includes all of them, however they are not spoken as Kannada. Among these languages, Tamil and Urdu are most spoken languages other than Kannada, with around 9% population speaking each language. Hindi is the lowest spoken language with only 2% of total population using Hindi as their main or primary language.
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Kannada is highly promoted by government as official language of Karnataka. Main language of Karnataka is Kannada as 65% people living in Karnataka speak Kannada . However, English is sometimes preferred to maintain formality. In commercial world of Karnataka, English and Kannada are the only languages used. Higher education is lately promoted in the state under many central governmental projects. IT industry is also growing in many regions of the state. Such developments have managed to maintain a noticeable number of English speaking populations in the state. Other than commerce industry, English is mostly used by tourist guides in order to act as interpreters.
Karnataka is a rich state according to languages. Kannada being the official language of Karnataka, there are many other local languages spoken in the state. Urdu, Marathi, Telugu, Tamil, Malayalam, Tulu and Hindi are some of them. This variety is whole a lot deep. According to several surveys more than ten tribal languages are endangered in Karnataka. There are over 50 tribal languages spoken other than 22 scheduled languages. It clearly indicates that there are over 72 languages spoken in Karnataka including scheduled and tribal languages.
There are many dialects of Kannada are spoken in the state of Karnataka which is the main language of Karnataka. Following is the classification:
Dialects of Karnataka / kannada are divided in four major groups:
Costal Dialects: Mangalore Kannada, Halakki, Barkur, Havyaka, Kundagannada, Sirsi, Kannada, Ankola Kannada
Northern Dialects: Dharwad Kannada, Gulbarga, Bagalkot
South-Eastern Dialect: Tiptur, Rabakavi, Najangud
Southern Karnataka: Aruvu, Banglore Kannada, Soliga, Kannada Kurumba, Gowdra, Bhashe
Other than proper dialects, Badagu is kannada related languages that is mainly spoken by badaga community. This community is mainly native to nilgiri region. The language itself is an independent Dravidian language. Holiya is a kannada related language spoken by a small group of people in Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh region. Urali language is also very close to Kannada.
|Second State Language||English|
|Regional/Local Language||Urdu, Marathi, Telugu, Tamil, Malayalam, Kannada , Tulu and Hindi|
Karnataka language is a southern Dravidian language. In early Common Era, Kannada was a primary language of Banavasi. It is considered that this language has a history more than two thousand years long. Identifiable Kannada words were found on Ashoka rock that was dated back in BC 230. Jain tradition also suggest than as much as 18 alphabets of Kannada are developed by Brahmi. Proofs of Kannada are also found in greek literature dating back into 5th an 4th century BCE. A piece of Egyptian city Alexandria has managed to prove the existence of Kannada back into 4th century.
49 phonemic letters are used in the language. These letters are divided into following groups:
Swaragulu: Vowels of Kannada that includes thirteen from those forty nice letters.
Vyanjanagulu: These are consonants. Thirty four of them are allocated to this group.
Yogavaahakagulu: Letters that are neither vowels nor consonants are included in this category. There are only two of them being anuswara and visarga.
Official language of Karnataka has a vast variety of literature. It is said that various kind of literature in Kannada is being written from 7th century. Tripadi is the oldest Kannada literature found which date back into 7th century. Majority of poetries and literatures are written in early 9th century. Chattana, bedandegabbam, melvaduth, bajanegabbam, gadyakatha and akkara are produced in that period. Ragale comes from late 10th century being the only literature present from that era. 11th century, just like 9th, gave a number of noticeable Kannada literature such as Vachana, Shara Shatpadi, Kusuma Shatpadi, Bhoga Shatpadi, Bhamini Shatpadi, Parivardhini Shatpadi and Vardhka Shatpadi. Bedagu and Hadugabba were produced in late 11th century. Sangatya, Suladi, Ugabhoga and Mundige were produced in 16th century and are some of the latest kannada literature present. Most of these literatures were written in regional languages of Karnataka.
Karnataka language name is Kannada, however, a vast variety of languages is spoken throughout the regions. Around 30 % of population comes from outer states. Most of the natives use Kannada as a primary language. English is the secondary official language in commercial world.