The state language of Jharkhand is Hindi. Almost every language spoken in Jharkhand possesses strong connections to Indo-Aryan languages. Bhojpuri, Khortha, Oriya, Sadri, Bengali and Angika are some of the known local languages spoken in Jharkhand. These Jharkhand languages are quite easier to understand and speak. One of the many languages of Jharkhand, Angika tends to have plenty of similarities to ‘Cham’. Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, Cambodia are some of the nations, in which Cham is spoken as a dialect. Angika is spoken in the region of Santhal Paragnas by most of the peoples.
Language spoken in Jharkhand has a vast variety. Munda is spoken by a good number of people in Jharkhand. Munda languages come from the family of Austro-Asiatic language family. Mundari, Ho and Santali are some of the tribal languages that come from the same category.
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Being the primary language of the state, hindi is also the official language of Jharkhand. The state of Jharkhand is one of those many highly diverse regions in a linguistic way in the whole subcontinent. Three major families of languages lie here. First one is Munda languages. Munda languages are Austro-Asiatic languages including Santhali, Mundari, Ho and Hindi Kharia and Bhumji. Dravidian language family includes Oraon. Rests are Korwa and Paharia.
Main language of Jharkhand is Hindi as most of the people living in Jharkhand speak Hindi. Hindi being the local language of Jharkhand, there are many other tribal and local languages spoken.
Most of them come from Indo-Aryan tribal language group. These local languages of Jharkhand include Korku, Mundari, kurmali, santhali, bhuij ho, oriya, bangali, etc. Hindi and English are spoken by majority of literate population so that Hindi is dominant in most of the regions. Bengali is spoken in some parts of the state. Angika is primary language in region of Santhal Paragnas. Mundari, kurukh, ho and santhali are four necessary tribal languages for government officials. Urdu and Bengali are in list to be announced as second official languages.
Hindi being main language of Jharkhand, following dialects can also be heard in minor and major levels.
Khortha is a dialect of Maithili language. Maithili and Khortha are widely spoken in Indian state of Jharkhand. Khortha is sometimes also referred as Khotta. It is spoken mainly in two regions of 13 total districts that are north Chotanagpur and Santhal Pargana. Following are those thirteen districts:
Adivasis also use Khortha along with the Sadaans as well, as a link though. Estimated figure of people using Khortha is around 5 million according to census of 2001. It is found that most of the people in Jharkhand use it along with Hindi.
|Second State Language||Urdu|
|Regional/Local Language||Korku, Mundari, kurmali, santhali, bhuij ho, oriya, bangali , bhojpuri|
Jharkhand language is considered being direct descendant of Sanskrit language. However, it has been heavily influenced by Dravid, Turkic, Persian, Arabic, Portuguese and English languages. It is said to be formed in 7th century and was stabilized later in 10th century. It is determined that it took over 400 years for completely developing this language. There are multiple dialects of Hindi known as Braj, Awadhi and Khari Boli. Khariboli is the main base of standard Hindi which is spoken in northern states of India mainly including Delhi and surrounding regions.
Most of the languages in Jharkhand including Hindi are written in Devanagari alphabets. Their vocabulary tends to be driven from Sanskrit language. Devanagari is a form of alphabet known as abugida. Each consonant of it has inherent vowel. This vowel can be changed using different vowel signs with it.
Origin of literature in official language of Jharkhand is found back into the 10th century. Various central zone indo-aryan languages are included in hindi literature with writing systems. Hindi literature is divided in four sections based slightly on their writing style and majorly on their production date. The division is as following:
Riti or Srngar
Vir Gathas are poems dedicated to bravery of warriors. Main period of their producing was until 14th century. Bhakti is devotional poems majorly written in 14th to 18th century. Riti are romantic poetry majorly produced in 18th to 20th century. Adhunik literature is modern literature being produced afterwards 20th century. Most of these literatures were written in regional languages of Jharkhand and rest of the northern India that were later provided base for developing Hindi.
As described, Jharkhand is a diverse region with a lot of variety in language and culture as well. Jharkhand language name is Hindi. It has a rich history. Many dialects of it are spoken over wide areas of this north-eastern Indian state. There are a plenty of regional languages spoken in the state too. Ultimately, Jharkhand is a place rich with multiple regional languages with Hindi being the main language of the state.